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America was the last continent colonized by modern humans in prehistoric times.

In less than 15,000 years before present (YBP), these first migrants had to adapt to an immensely wide variety of environments.

In Europe, LP varies from 15–54% in eastern and southern regions, 62–86% in central and western regions, and 89–96% in northern regions [5], [7]–[13].

Multiple independent mutations have been associated with this characteristic, some of which are located in an intron of the , first underwent selection among dairying farmers around 7,500 years ago, possibly in association with the dissemination of the Neolithic Linearbandkeramik culture over Central Europe [13].

For this purpose, we genotyped 229 individuals affiliated with 19 Native American populations and added data for 41 other Native American groups (n=1905) to the analysis.

In combination with the SNP cluster of a neutral region, this dataset was then used to unravel the scenario involved in Human cultural practices have drastically modified environmental conditions and behaviors, promoting rapid and substantial genomic changes often associated with positive selection and adaptation (gene-culture dynamics [1], [2]).

In the history of , a particularly important event that triggered a new and striking gene-culture-coevolution cycle was the development of agriculture and animal domestication during the Neolithic period (~10,000 years ago).

Ethical approval for the present study was provided by the Brazilian National Ethics Commission (CONEP Resolution no.

123/98) for the Brazilian samples, as well as by ethics committee of: (a) Universidad de Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia (Colombian samples); (b) Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México, México (Mexican samples); (c) Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica (Costa Rican and Panamanian samples); (d) Universidad of Chile, Santiago, Chile (Chilean samples); (e) Université Paul Sabatier Toulouse 3, Toulouse, France (Bolivian and French Guianian samples).

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